• Navigating the sophisticated world of letters of intent

    27 Dec 2023

    In mergers and acquisitions (M&As), akin to an opening move in chess, the initial step sets a strategic and pace-setting tone for the entire process. The Letter of Intent (LOI) is a critical initial document in M&A transactions. Its importance cannot be understated, as it carries substantial strategic value for both the buyer and seller, laying the foundational groundwork for the ensuing negotiations and actions.

    This blog post will explore the critical importance of LOIs when it comes to navigating buy-side transactions, delving into their significance, their form, and their potential risks.

    What is a letter of intent (LOI)

    A Letter of Intent (LOI) is a document outlining the understanding between two or more parties before they enter into a formal agreement. It's a non-binding declaration of intent, used to express a mutual commitment to move forward with a negotiation, transaction, or project. LOIs typically summarize the key terms and conditions of a proposed deal, serving as a precursor to a binding contract. They are commonly used in business transactions like mergers and acquisitions, real estate deals, and other significant negotiations, setting the groundwork for further detailed negotiations and agreements.

    Purpose of LOIs

    The purpose of LOIs is to outline a preliminary agreement between parties and signify a serious commitment to move forward with a deal. It acts as a foundation for further negotiations and agreements, laying out key terms and conditions. Common contexts for LOIs include business transactions like mergers and acquisitions, partnerships, and large-scale purchases. They are also used in real estate transactions, academic admissions, and grant applications. In these scenarios, an LOI helps to clarify the intentions of the parties, streamline negotiations, and can serve as a road map for future formal agreements.

    Binding effect

    LOIs are generally not legally binding in terms of the deal or agreement itself. However, they can contain binding provisions such as confidentiality, exclusivity, or non-solicitation clauses. The non-binding nature of LOIs allows parties to outline their intentions and terms for a potential agreement without committing to the final terms until a formal contract is negotiated and signed. But it's crucial to draft LOIs carefully to avoid creating unintentional binding obligations, particularly in terms of specific terms and conditions that might be interpreted as contractually binding.

    The implications of LOIs in contracts

    In contract law, the implications of Letters of Intent (LOIs) can be significant. While typically non-binding, LOIs can create legal obligations if they contain language indicating a clear intent to be bound or if the parties begin performing under the terms of the LOI, implying a contract. Courts may examine the language and conduct of the parties to determine whether a binding contract was unintentionally formed. Furthermore, even when non-binding, LOIs can include enforceable clauses like confidentiality or exclusivity. Thus, careful drafting is crucial to avoid unintended legal commitments. The precise legal impact of an LOI often depends on the jurisdiction's contract law principles and the specific circumstances of each case.


    Typically, the buyer drafts the Letter of Intent (LOI), often granting them a favorable position in negotiations. However, in certain situations, the seller might prepare the LOI. This could happen if the buyer aims to reduce legal costs, or if the seller holds a particularly advantageous position in the transaction.
    One can expect to find very standard key terms in an LOI, such as: parties involved, subject matter, key terms including: purchase price, due diligence, financing structures, transaction structures, exclusivity, closing conditions, termination rights, and confidentiality obligations. These terms establish the nature of the deal and help to protect all parties involved. These chief terms usually involve back-and-forth between the buy-side and sell-side, so that by the last iteration of the LOI, there will not be too many surprises or deal-breakers when formalizing the deal.

    In respect to expenses, the party responsible for the associated costs of the LOI can vary depending on the negotiations. If the buyer is drafting the LOI, they may be willing to cover the cost of drafting the agreement to demonstrate commitment to the deal. Conversely, the seller may decide to bear the cost of preparing the LOI if they are highly motivated to sell. It is also possible that the expenses may be shared between buyer and seller. In some cases, there is also the option of conditional payment, meaning that the initiating party may agree to pay for it, but with the condition that the deal reaches a certain stage.

    Strategic use of LOIs

    Letters of Intent (LOIs) can be used strategically in negotiations by setting clear expectations and guiding the direction of the discussions. They help in aligning both parties on key terms early in the process, reducing misunderstandings. LOIs can also be used to lock in certain conditions, like exclusivity, preventing other negotiations during a specified period. They serve as a framework for detailed contract negotiations, saving time and resources by outlining the deal's structure. Additionally, LOIs can strengthen a party's negotiating position by formalizing their interest and commitment to the transaction.

    The benefits of utilizing LOIs

    The Value of LOIs in M&A stems from various components in the ever-evolving landscape of mergers and acquisitions.

    Primarily, an LOI serves as a gauge of the buyer's commitment, testing their seriousness and credibility early in the process. By delineating key terms, an LOI conveys a clear intention and signals good faith in the negotiation.

    Secondly, LOIs contribute to a more efficient negotiation process. By the buyer clarifying key terms, setting out proposed conditions, and outlining potential contingencies in the LOI, it can significantly minimize time spent on later stages of negotiation.

    Thirdly, an LOI can provide the buyer with exclusive negotiation rights. This exclusivity enhances their bargaining strength by barring the seller from accepting other offers during a set timeframe. Should this exclusive right be breached, a break fee, or termination fee, is enforced. This fee acts as a financial repercussion for contract cancellation and is typically calculated based on factors like due diligence and recovery costs, a portion of the deal’s value, and the financial impact of the termination.

    Real life example

    A tech startup was looking to secure funding and decided to use an LOI to agree on preliminary terms with a venture capital firm. The LOI outlined the investment amount, equity stake, and other key terms. The CEO of the startup felt confident to proceed with product development and other plans, thinking he found the needed investment. However, since the LOI was not fully binding, both parties had the flexibility to adjust terms as due diligence progressed before finalizing the investment. Upon completion of due diligence, the venture capital firm was not satisfied with the results and pulled out of the investment. This scenario illustrates how an LOI can provide a framework for negotiations while allowing flexibility for detailed terms to be fleshed out later.

    Drafting tips

    When drafting LOIs, one should consider the following tips:

    - Clarity: clearly define the purpose and scope of the agreement. Avoid ambiguous language.

    - Key Terms: outline essential terms such as price, timeline, obligations, and deliverables.

    - Non-binding Clause: explicitly state which parts, if any, are legally binding.

    - Confidentiality: include a confidentiality clause if sensitive information is exchanged.

    - Exist Strategy: specify conditions under which parties can withdraw.

    - Duration: Define the LOIs validity period.

    - Signatures: Ensure that the LOI is signed by the authorized representatives.

    - Legal Review: have a legal expert review the document.


    In buy-side transactions, LOIs will have a pivotal role in the foundation for successful acquisitions. As buyers, LOIs can otherwise be seen as making a good first impression. The first step in capitalizing on important opportunities as a buy-side party is understanding the profound nature of this opportunity and putting your best foot forward. This first impression can make all the difference when it comes to closing a deal, and a strongly positioned LOI is the first of many tactical moves in reaching checkmate.